The Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in India has a serious socio-economic implication. Therefore, in order to control FMD in the country and to minimize the economic losses due to disease as per the PCP pathway (progressive control pathway for FMD; PCP-FMD) laid down by OIE/FAO, National Level Mission Mode efforts are in place to control FMD through a country-wide vaccination and stringent biosecurity arrangements implemented under Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMD-CP). The intensive control programme was under implementation since 10th Five Year Plan (in 2003-04) initially in selected 54 districts covering eighth States and six UTs. Further extended to cover 167 Districts during 2010-11 and then to Rajasthan and the remaining Districts of Uttar Pradesh in 2013-14, Bihar during 2014-15.As of now the programme is being implemented in entire country since 2017-18. Considering the multi-benefits of FMD control and subsequent eradication of the disease from the zones / country and its importance to benefit the small holder livestock farmers in terms of improvement of livelihood, economic, food and nutrition security, the Government has accorded top priority for implementation of the programme.
The major activities of the intensive programme component would be to vaccinate all the eligible cattle and buffaloes at six monthly interval, Publicity and Mass Awareness Campaign, including orientation of the State functionaries for implementation of the scheme, identification of the target animals, Sero-surveillance/monitoring of animal population on random basis, mass vaccination, procurement of cold cabinets and FMD vaccine, assessment of the randomly collected samples of vaccines for their quality, virus typing in case of outbreaks and recording/regulation of animal movement from unvaccinated areas through temporary quarantine/ check-posts.
To assess the effectiveness of the vaccination programme, serum samples of 10 cattle and 10 buffalo (at random) before vaccination and 21 - 30 days post vaccination from 10 villages at random from each district for each round of vaccination should be collected and screened for level of serotype specific neutralizing antibodies. A total of 400 serum samples per district per round of vaccination will be continued to be collected at random and tested.
In order to have early warning system in place, State/UT Government is required to undertake surveillance of FMD. In the event of any outbreak, it should be reported immediately and the State/UT should control and contain the disease as per the provisions of the Prevention and Control of Infectious and Contagious Diseases in Animals Act, 2009:
• Each and every outbreak should be investigated to know the epidemiology of the disease with forward and backward linkage.
• Isolation and containment of sick animals and their treatment
• Ring vaccination (5-10 Km) radius around the affected village/area to cover all the susceptible animals including sheep, goats, pigs etc. to prevent virus transmission
• Restriction/control of movement of infected animals to prevent the spread of the infection.
• Disinfection and implementation of bio-security measures
• Adequate Public awareness campaign in outbreak areas.
The Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (DADF), Government of India makes policy for implementation of control programme , arrange vaccine supply , other logistic support, cold chain and extend financial support in the ratio of 60:40 (Govt. of India: States) and 90:10 basis for the North-Eastern and Himalayan States. 100% Central Assistance is provided to the UTs for implementation of the programme.The state / UTs where FMD –CP is operational, undertake vaccination in a time bound manner keep records and provide manpower to undertake various activities under FMD-CP.The Directorate on Foot and Mouth Disease (DFMD), a laboratory under Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) undertake detailed sero- monitoring under FMD control Programme to know the immune status in animals vaccinated under FMD Control Programme.The DADF monitors the programme and ensure smooth implementation.
Activities to be undertaken under Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme
|Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme||(i) Cost of vaccine – To be procured by the respective State/UT Government.|
|(ii) Vaccination cost (this includes needle, syringes, cotton, sterilizer, disinfectant, medicines, transportation cost, mobilization of manpower, honorarium, mass propaganda (IEC), maintenance of cold chain facility (including vaccine carriers, ice, etc,) etc. @ maximum Rs. 4.25 per vaccination|
|(iii) Development of cold chain facility (Cost of cold cabinets, etc.)|
|(iv) Grant in aid to Research Institutes for Sero-monitoring|
|(v) Identification/Health card @ Rs.0.50 to 1.00 per animal (For additional population proposed to be covered)|
|(vi) Control of animal movement (this includes expenditure on establishment of temporary quarantine/ check posts and also identification of animals, etc. @ maximum about Rs 10.00 lakhs per checkpost)|